REL 680 Textual Archives:
The Functions of Scriptures

Fall 2024, Wednesdays 3:45-6:15 p.m. in HL 504

Instructor: JIM WATTS (Ph.D.)
Office: 501 HL; Phone: 443-5713
E-mail: jwwatts

This seminar will explore the various forms and functions of scriptures, primarily in Judaism, Christianity and Islam We will start with the phenomena of scriptures in modern cultures, including material forms and ritual uses as well as interpretive traditions, and then trace them back through early modern, medieval and late antique cultures. The seminar will end by exploring the religious, literary, and political factors that influenced the development and canonization of scripture in ancient Judaism and early Christianity, and shaped the idea of authoritative scripture in all three Western religious traditions.

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Syracuse  University  has  a  variety  of  policies  designed  to  guarantee  that  students  live  and  study in a community respectful of  their  needs and those of fellow students. Some of the most important of these concern

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Disability-Related Accommodations:
Syracuse  University  values  diversity  and  inclusion;  we  are  committed  to  a  climate  of  mutual respect and full participation. There may be aspects of the instruction or design of this course that result in barriers to your inclusion and full participation in this course. I invite  any  student  to  meet  with  me  to  discuss  strategies  and/or  accommodations  (academic adjustments) that may be essential to your success and to collaborate with the Office of Disability Services (ODS) in this process.If you would like to discuss disability-accommodations or register with ODS, please visit their website at  Please  call  (315)  443-4498  or  email for more detailed information.  ODS is responsible for coordinating disability-related academic accommodations and will work with the student to develop an access plan. Since academic accommodations may require early planning and generally are not provided retroactively, please contact ODS as soon as possible to begin this process.

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Syracuse  University’s  Academic  Integrity  Policy  reflects  the  high  value  that  we,  as  a  university  community,  place  on  honesty  in  academic  work.  The  policy  defines  our  expectations for academic honesty and holds students accountable for the integrity of all work they submit. Students should understand that it is their responsibility to learn about course-specific   expectations,   as   well   as   about   university-wide   academic   integrity   expectations. The policy governs appropriate citation and use of sources, the integrity of work submitted in exams and assignments, and the veracity of signatures on attendance sheets and other verification of participation in class activities. The policy also prohibits students from submitting the same work in more than one class without receiving written authorization  in  advance  from  both  instructors.  Under  the  policy,  students  found  in  violation  are  subject  to  grade  sanctions  determined  by  the  course  instructor  and  non-grade  sanctions  determined  by  the  School  or  College  where  the  course  is  offered  as  described in the Violation and Sanction Classification Rubric. SU students are required to read an online summary of the University’s academic integrity expectations and provide an electronic signature agreeing to abide by them twice a year during pre-term check-in on MySlice

Course Requirements:
Students are expected to attend and to discuss in class all the required readings (listed below after Assignment) and as much additional literature (listed as Background) as necessary to understand the developments under discussion.  In addition, each student will (1) prepare and present an oral and written report (10 minutes, 1,000 words) on one additional book or set of essays (listed after Report), and (2) write a substantive and original research paper (ca. 4,000-5,000 words) on a subject related to the course topic, presenting the class with a preliminary summary during the last class meetings. The finished research papers are due on or before May13th. The students work will be evaluated on the basis of class participation (20%), the oral and written book report (20%), the research presentation (10%) and the final research paper (50%). Late papers and reports will not be eligible for "A" grades.

Required Texts:

  • F. E. Peters, The Voice, the Word, the Books: The Sacred Scripture of the Jews, Christians, and Muslims. (Princeton, 2007)
  • Brian Malley, How the Bible Works: An Anthropological Study of Evangelical Biblicism (AltaMira, 2004)
  • William A. Graham, Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion (Cambridge, 1987)
  • Jack Goody, The Logic of Writing and the Organization of Society (Cambridge, 1986)

The assigned articles, except biblical texts and those hot linked or marked by a minus (-), are available electronically through Blackboard. The required textbooks are for sale in the Bookstore and also available on reserve in Bird Library. For further resources relevant to the topic of this course, consult the Background readings, the other articles in the collections cited below, and also the annotated bibliography in Canonization and Decanonization 435-506.

Topics and Readings (for full citations, see bibliography below):





Aug 28

Introductions and Scriptures

Assignment: Graham, “Scripture”
Peters, Voice 1-37, 271-276

Watts, How & Why Books Matter, "3D Scriptures"

Sep 4

Archives and Cultural Memory

Assignment: Kaplan, "Working in the Archives"
Nora, "Between Memory and History
Boer, "Loci memoriae — Lieux de mémoire"
J. Assmann, "Communicative and Cultural Memory"
A. Assmann, "Canon and Archive"
Wimbush, “It’s Scripturalization, Colleagues!”
McLaren, “End of Religion/Death of the Book"
Background: Halbgewachs, Collective Memory
J. Assmann, Das Kulturelle Gedächtnis.

Sep 11

The Texts of Scriptures

Assignment: W. C. Smith, “Study of Religion ... of the Bible”
Malley, How the Bible Works (all)
Pulis, “In the Beginning”
Newton, "African American Bible"
Wimbush, Scripturalectics, ix-26, 151-155
Wimbush, White Men's Magic

Stolow, Orthodox by Design: Judaism, Print Politics ...
Background: Neil, “Criticism and Theological Use,”CHB 3:238-293

Sep 18

The Expression of Scriptures

Assignment: Peters, Voice 247-70
Graham, Beyond the Written Word (all)
Yoo, “Public Scripture Reading Rituals”
Burrus, "Saints Lives as Performance Art," BBSB
Report: Bielo, The Social Life of Scriptures
Kassam, “Signifying Revelation in Islam”
Gold, Making the Bible Modern
Halbertal, People of the Book 

Sep 25

The Iconicity of Scriptures

Assignment: Peters, Voice 219-46
Marty, “America's Iconic Book”
Wilkens, "Infusions and Fumigations," SST 115-136
Schleicher, "Engaging All the Senses," SST 39-56
Parmenter, "How the Bible Feels," SST 27-38
Watts, How & Why Books Matter, "Iconic Books & Texts"
Browse The Iconic Books Blog;
Report: Myrvold, Death of Sacred Texts
Background: - Legendre, “La totémisation de la société"
Wilkens, "Embodying the Qur'an," BBSB
Parmenter, "Being the Bible," BBSB

Oct 2

Bible in Late Modernity & Postmodernity

Assignment: Moore & Sherwood, "Biblical Studies 'After' Theory" (3 articles)
Sugirtharajah, “Known Knowns and Unknown Unknowns”
Jennings, “Renouncing Completeness”
Pasulka, “Premodern Scriptures in Postmodern Times”
Beal, "End of the Word as we Know It," IB&T 207-224

Anderson, "Scriptures, Materiality and Digital," BBSB
Armstrong, Lost Art of Scriptures
Background: Beal, "Reception History and Beyond"

Oct 9

Bible in Early Modernity

Assignment: Kugel, “The Bible in the University”
Hill, "Charles Augustus Briggs"

Tanner, Is the Negro Cursed? 23-38
Heyman, “Canon Law and the Canon of Scripture”
Malley, “Bible in British Folklore,” IB&T 315-344

Plate, "Looking at Words," IB&T 119-133
Background: -Bainton, “Bible in the Reformation,” CHB 3:1-37
-Crehan, “Bible in the Roman Catholic Church,” CHB 3:199-237
- Levenson, “Theological Consensus or Historicist Evasion?”
Greenspahn, “Biblical Scholars”

Oct 16

Medieval Competitive Exegesis & Manuscript Art

Assignment: Peters, Voice 120-51, 164-88
Goering, “Introduction to Medieval Christian Biblical Interpretation”
Walfish, “Introduction to Medieval Jewish Biblical Interpretation”
McAuliffe, “Introduction to Medieval Interpretation of the Qur’an”
Pulcini, Exegesis as Polemical Discourse 13-56
Parmenter, "The Iconic Book," IB&T 63-92
Brown, "Images to be Read," IB&T 93-118
Ganz, "Touching Books," SST 81-113
Background: Al-Azmeh, “The Muslim Canon"
Sweetman, “Beryl Smalley and Performative Reading"
- Borg, “Canon and Social Control”
- Dijk, “Bible in Liturgical Use,” CHB 2:220-251
-Articles under “Vernacular Scriptures,” CHB 2:338-491
- Halbertal, People of the Book 90-128, 137-144
- Wheeler, Applying the Canon in Islam

Oct 23

Ancient Christianity & Book Myths

Assignment: - Bible: Luke 1-2; 2 Timothy 3:14-17
ADD John 1
Peters, Voice 105-19, 152-63
ADD Watts on Ireneaus
Parmenter, “The Bible as Icon: Myths of Divine Origins”
Larson, "Gospels as Imperialized Sites," IB&T 373-388.
Miller, "Words with an Alien Voice"
Humfress, "Judging by the Book"
Van der Horst, "Sortes: Sacred Books ..."
Report: Klingshirn & Safran, The Early Christian Book
Background: Childs, “The Problem of the Christian Bible”
Rapp, "Holy Texts, Holy Men, Holy Scribes"
- Lamb, "...Bible in the Liturgy," CHB 1:563-586
- Barton, Holy Writings, Sacred Text

Oct 30

Rabbinic Judaism & Competing Canons

Due: Paper topics and texts
Bible: 2 Maccabees 7
Mishnah Berakhot 1:1-4; 4:1-7
Halbertal, People of the Book 45-89
Alexander, "Homer, the Prophet..."
Rutgers, "Importance of Scripture" 287-303
Zevit, “The Second-Third Century Canonization"
Background: -Vermes, "Bible and Midrash," CHB 1:199-231
Neusner & Green, Writing with Scripture

Nov 6

Literary & Religious Canons

Assignment: Peters, Voice 38-79
Sheppard, “Canon”
J.Z. Smith, “Sacred Persistence”
Krause-Loner, "Be-Witching Scripture," IB&T 239-258
Rochberg-Halton, "Canonicity in Cuneiform Texts"?
Kooij, "The Canonization of Ancient Books"
Barton, Holy Writings, Sacred Text, 106-130
Background: Lust, "Quotation formulae and Canon in Qumran"
Ulrich, "The Bible in the Making"
Lang, "The 'Writings': A Hellenistic Literary Canon"

J.Z. Smith, “Canons, Catalogues and Classics”

Nov 13

Literacy & Orality

Due: Paper thesis, bibliography and outline
Foster, tr., "Pious Scholar"
Peters, Voice 80-104, 189-218
Goody, Logic of Writing, 1-103, 127-85.
Carr, Tablet of the Heart, 3-14, 20-34, 81-83, 99-109, 161-73, 193-98, 287-97.
- Davies, Scribes and Schools

Nov 20

Icons & Books

Assignment: - Bible: Exodus 24, Deuteronomy 6, 31; 2 Kings 22-23; Nehemiah 8; Sira 24
Van der Toorn, “The Iconic Book"
Watts, How & Why Books Matter, "Ancient Iconic Texts"
Frevel, "Instant Scripture," SST 57-79
Camp, "Possessing the Iconic Book," IB&T 389-406
Sarefield, "Symbolics of Book Burning"
W.C. Smith, "Scripture as Form and Concept"
Background: - Wiseman, "Books in the Ancient Near East" CHB 1:30-48

Dec 4

Paper presentations

Dec 18

Research Papers Due



Course Bibliography:

(see also the topically categorized bibliography on iconic books)

Collections of essays:

  • The Bible and the American Myth: A Symposium on the Bible and the Construction of Meaning (Macon: Mercer University Pres, 1999)
  • The Biblical Canons (Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium), ed. J-M Auwers and H. J. de Jonge (Louven: Peeters, 2003)
  • Books as Bodies and as Sacred Beings (BBSB), ed. J. W. Watts (Sheffield: Equinox, 2020)
  • The Cambridge History of the Bible (CHB), 3 vols., eds P. R. Ackroyd, C. F. Evans, S. L. Greenslade and G. W. H. Lampe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963, 1969, 1970) (available in Bird Library Reference section and in the stacks)
  • The New Cambridge History of the Bible (NCHB), 4 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012, 2013)
  • Canonization and Decanonization, with An Annotated Bibliography by J. A. M. Snoek, eds. A. van der Kooij, K. van der Toorn (Leiden: Brill, 1998)
  • The Death of Sacred Texts: Ritual Disposal and Renovation of Texts in World Religions. Ed. Kristina Myrvold (London: Ashgate, 2010).
  • The Early Christian Book, ed. William E. Klingshirn and Linda Safran (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 2007).
  • Iconic Books and Texts (IB&T), ed. J. W. Watts (Sheffield: Equinox, 2013)
  • The Image and the Book: Iconic Cults, Aniconism and the Rise of Book Religion in Israel and the Ancient Near East, ed. K. van der Toorn (Louven: Peeters, 1997)
  • The Impact of Scripture on Early Christianity, ed. J. den Boeft & M. L. van Poll-van de Lisdonk (Leiden: Brill, 1999)
  • Kanon in Konstruktion und Dekonstruktion, ed. Becker et al. (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2011).
  • Miniature Books: The Format and Function of Tiny Religious Texts, ed. Kristina Myrvold and Dorina Miller Parmenter (Sheffield: Equinox, 2019).
  • Sensing Sacred Texts (SST), ed. J. W. Watts (Sheffield: Equinox, 2018)
  • The Social Life of Scriptures: Cross-Cultural Perspectives in Biblicism. Ed. James S. Bielo. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009)
  • Text, Image and Otherness in Children’s Bibles, ed. C. Vander Stichelle and H. S. Pyper (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2012)
  • Theorizing Scriptures: New Critical Orientations to a Cultural Phenomenon. Ed. Vincent L. Wimbush. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008)
  • The Use of Sacred Books in the Ancient World, ed. L.V. Rutgers et al (Leuven: Peeters, 1998)
  • With Reverence for the Word: Medieval Scriptural Exegesis in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, ed. J. D. McAuliffe, B. D. Walfish, and J. W. Goering (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)
  • Cultural Memory Studies: An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook, ed. Sara B. Young, Ansgar Nünning, and Astrid Erll (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2008).

Books and articles:

  • Aichele, George. The Control of Biblical Meaning: Canon as Semiotic Mechanism. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity, 2001.
  • Akenson, Donald Harmon. Surpassing Wonder: The Invention of the Bible and the Talmuds (Chicago, 1998).
  • Al-Azmeh, A. “The Muslim Canon from Late Antiquity to the Era of Modernism” in Canonization and Decanonization 191-228.
  • Alexander, Philip S. "`Homer the Prophet of All' and 'Moses our Teacher': Late Antique Exegesis of the Homeric Epics and of the Torah of Moses," in Use of Sacred Books 127-142.
  • Alter, Robert. Canon and Creativity: Modern Writing and the Authority of Scripture (New Haven: Yale, 2000).
  • Anderson, Brad. "Scriptures, Materiality and the Digital Turn." Postscripts 10 (2019), 38-52.
  • Armstrong, Karen. The Lost Art of Scripture: Rescuing the Sacred Texts (Random House, 2019)
  • Arnold, Phillip. “Paper Rituals and the Mexican landscape.” In Representing Aztec Ritual: Performance, Text, and Image in the Work of Sahagún. Edited by Eloise Quiñones Keber. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002. 227-250.
  • Arnold, Phillip. “Black Elk and Book Culture.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 67 (1999) 85-111.
  • Arnold, Philip P. “Indigenous 'Texts' of Inhabiting the Land: George Washington’s Wampum Belt and the Canandaigua Treaty,” Postscripts 6 (2010), 277-289 = IB&T, 361-372.
  • Assmann, Aleida. "Canon and Archive." In Cultural Memory Studies 97-107.
  • Assmann, Jan. "Communicative and Cultural Memory." In Cultural Memory Studies 109-118.
  • Assmann, Jan. Das Kulturelle Gedächtnis: Schrift, Erinnerung und Politische Identität in frühen Hochkulturen. Munich: Verlag C.H. Beck, 1992.
  • Bainton, Roland H. "The Bible in the Reformation," CHB 3:1-37.
  • Balbir, Nalini. "Is a Manuscript an Object or a Living Being? Jain Views on the Life and Use of Sacred Texts." In Myrvold, Death of Sacred Texts (2010), 107-24.
  • Barton, John. Holy Writings, Sacred Text: the Canon in Early Christianity (Louisville: WJK, 1997)
  • Beal, Timothy. “Reception History and Beyond: Toward the Cultural History of Scriptures,” Biblical Interpretation 19 (2011) 357-372.
  • Beal, Timothy. “The End of the Word as We Know It: The Cultural Iconicity of the Bible in the Twilight of Print Culture,” Postscripts 6 (2010), 165-184 = IB&T, 207-224.
  • Beal, Timothy. The Rise and Fall of the Bible: The Unexpected History of an Accidental Book. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2011.
  • Bell, Catherine. "Scriptures—Text and Then Some." In Theorizing Scriptures, 23-28.
  • Biderman, Shlomo. Scripture and Knowledge: An Essay on Religious Epistemology (Leiden: Brill, 1995).
  • Boer, Pim den. "Loci memoriaeLieux de mémoire." In Cultural Memory Studies 19-25.
  • Broo, Måns. "Rites of Burial and Immersion: Hindu Ritual Practices on Disposing of Sacred Texts in Vrindavan." In Myrvold, Death of Sacred Texts (2010), 91-106.
  • Borg, M.B. ter. “Canon and Social Control,” in Canonization and Decanonization 411-423.
  • Brown, Michelle P. The Lindisfarne Gospels: Society, Spirituality and the Scribe (London: British Library, 2003).
  • Brown, Michelle P. "“Images to be Read and Words to be Seen: The Iconic Role of the Early Medieval Book,” Postscripts 6 (2010), 39-66 = IB&T, 93-118.
  • Burrus, Virginia. "Saints Lives As Performance Art." BBSB
  • Burton-Christie, Douglas. The Word in the Desert: Scripture and the Quest for Holiness in Early Christian Monasticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Camp, Claudia V. “Possessing the Iconic Book: Ben Sira as Case Study,” Postscripts 6 (2010), 309-329 = IB&T, 389-406.
  • Campenhausen, Hans von. The Formation of the Christian Bible (tr. J. A. Baker, Philadelphia: Fortress, 1972)
  • Carr, David M. Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (New York: Oxford, 2005).
  • Casson, Lionel. Libraries in the Ancient World. New Haven: Yale, 2001.
  • Chartier, Roger. Forms and Meanings: Texts, Performances, and Audiences from Codex to Computer. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.
  • Childs, Brevard S. “The Problem of the Christian Bible,” in Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments: Theological Reflection on the Christian Bible (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992), pp. 55-69
  • Clines, David J.A. The Bible and the Modern World (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997)
  • 3:199-237.
  • Chireau, Yvonne P. "Conjuring Scriptures and Engendering Healing Traditions." In Theorizing Scriptures: New Critical Orientations to a Cultural Phenomenon. Ed. V. L. Wimbush. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008. 119-27.
  • Clarke, Sathianathan. “Viewing the Bible through the Eyes and Ears of Subalterns in India.” Biblical Interpretation 10/3 (2002): 251-257.
  • Cohn, Yehudah B. Tangled Up In Text: Tefillin and the Ancient World. Providence: Brown Judaic Studies, 2008.
  • Cornelius, Izak.  "The Many Faces of God: Divine Images and Symbols in Ancient Near Eastern Religions," in The Image and the Book 21-43.
  • Coward, Harold. Sacred Word and Sacred Text: Scripture in World Religions (Maryknoll: Orbis, 1988)
  • Coward, Harold. Experiencing Scripture in World Religions (Maryknoll: Orbis, 2000).
  • Crehan, F.J. "The Bible in the Roman Catholic Church from Trent to the Present Day," CHB
  • Cressey, D. “Books as Totems in Seventeenth-Century England and New England.” Journal of Library History 21/1 (1986) 92-106.
  • Crom, Dries De. “The Letter of Aristeas and the Authority of the Septuagint.” Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 17.2 (2008): 141-160.
  • Dael, P.C.J. van. “Biblical Cycles on Church Walls: Pro Lectione Pictura,” in J. den Boeft & M. L. van Poll-van de Lisdonk (eds.),  The Impact of Scripture on Early Christianity 122-132.
  • Davies, Philip R. Scribes and Schools: The Canonization of the Hebrew Scriptures (Louisville: Westminster, 1998).
  • Denny, Frederick M. "Recitation of the Quran," Islam and the Muslim Community (San Francisco : Harper & Row, 1987), pp. 78-88.
  • Denny, Frederick and Rodney Taylor, eds. The Holy Book in Comparative Perspective (Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1985).
  • Depew, Mary. Matrices of Genre: Authors, Canons, and Society (Cambridge: Harvard, 2000).
  • Dijk, S.J.P. "The Bible in Liturgical Use," CHB 2:220-251.
  • Drogin, Marc. Biblioclasm: The Mythical Origins, Magic Powers, and Perishability of the Written Word. Savage, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1989.
  • Elitzur, Zeev. “Between the Textual and the Visual: Borderlines of Late Antique Book Iconicity,”Postscripts 6 (2010), 83-99 = IB&T, 135-150.
  • Folkert, K. W. “The ‘Canons’ of ‘Scripture’,” in M. Levering, ed., Rethinking Scripture: Essay from a Comparative Perspective (Albany: SUNY Press, 1989), 170-79.
  • Foster, Benjamin. Before the Muses: An Anthology of Akkadian Literature (Bethesda: CDL, 1993).
  • Frei, Hans. The Eclipse of Biblical Narrative: A Study in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Hermeneutics (New Haven: Yale, 1974).
  • Frei, Peter. "Persian Imperial Authorization: A Summary," trans. by J.W. Watts, in Persia and Torah: The Theory of Imperial Authorization of the Pentateuch (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2001), pp. 5-40.
  • Goering, Joseph W. “An Introduction to Medieval Christian Biblical Interpretation,” in With Reverence for the Word, 197-203.
  • Gold, Penny Shine. Making the Bible Modern: Children's Bibles and Jewish Education in Twentieth-Century America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004.
  • Goody, Jack. The Logic of Writing and the Organization of Society (Cambridge, 1986).
  • Goody, Jack. The Power of the Written Tradition (Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 2000).
  • Graham, M. Patrick. “The Tell-Tale Iconic Book,” Postscripts 6 (2010), 117-141 = IB&T, 165-186.
  • Graham, William A. Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).
  • Graham, William A. “Scripture.” Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd ed.), 12:8194-8205.
  • Graham, William A. "Winged Words: Scriptures and Classics as Iconic Texts." Postscripts 6 (2010), 7-22 = IB&T, 33-46.
  • Green, William Scott. “Scripture in Classical Judaism.” In The Encyclopedia of Judaism. Ed. J. Neusner, S. Peck and W. S. Green. New York: Continuum/Leiden: Brill, 1999. 1302-1309.
  • Greenberg, Moshe. "On the Political Use of the Bible in Modern Israel: An Engaged Critique," in D. P. Wright et al (eds.), Pomegranates and Golden Bells: Studies ... in Honor of Jacob Milgrom (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1995), pp. 461-471.
  • Greenspahn, Frederick E. "Biblical Scholars, Medieval and Modern," in J. Neusner et al (eds.), Judaic Perspectives on Ancient Israel (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987), pp. 245-258.
  • Griffiths, Paul J. Religious Reading: the place of reading in the practice of religion (Oxford: Oxford U.P., 1999)
  • Gutjahr, Paul. An American Bible: A History of the Good Book in the United States, 1777-1880 (New Haven: Yale, 1999)
  • Halbertal, Moshe. People of the Book: Canon, Meaning, and Authority (Harvard, 1997)
  • Halbwachs, Maurice. On Collective Memory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992, French original 1925).
  • Hallo, W.W.  The Context of Scripture. Vol. 1: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill, 1997)
  • Hamel, Christopher de. The Book: A History of the Bible. New York: Phaidon, 2001.
  • Harrisville, Roy A. & Walter Sundberg. The Bible in Modern Culture: Baruch Spinoza to Brevard Childs (2nd ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001).
  • Hatch, Nathan O. and Mark A. Noll, eds. The Bible in America: Essays in Cultural History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
  • Hays, Richard, and Ellen Davis, eds. The Art of Reading Scripture (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003).
  • Hettema, Th. L. “The Canon: Authority and Fascination” in Canonization and Decanonization 391-398.
  • Heyman, George. "Canon Law and the Canon of Scripture." Postscripts 2 (2006), 209-25.
  • Hill, Doug. "Charles Augustus Briggs, Modernism, and the Rise of Biblical Scholarship in Nineteenth-Century America," in V.L. Wimbush (ed.), The Bible and the American Myth: A Symposium on the Bible and the Construction of Meaning (Macon: Mercer University Pres, 1999), pp. 71-104.
  • Horst, Pieter W. van der. "Sortes: Sacred Books as Instant Oracles in Late Antiquity" in Use of Sacred Books 143-173.
  • Humfress, Caroline. “Judging by the Book: Christian Codices and Late Antique Legal Culture.” In Early Christian Book, 141-158.
  • Jaffee, Martin S. Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE-400 CE (New York: Oxford, 2000).
  • Jennings, Willie James. “Renouncing Completeness” : The Rich Ruler and the Possibilities of Biblical Scholarship without White Masculine Self-Sufficiency.” Journal of Biblical Literature 140 (2021), 837-842.
  • Johannot, Yvonne. Tourner la page: livre, rites et symboles. Millon, 1988.
  • Kaplan, Alice Yaeger. "Working in the Archives," Yale French Studies 77 (1990), 103-116.
  • Kassam, Tazim R. "Signifying Revelation in Islam." In Theorizing Scriptures: New Critical Orientations to a Cultural Phenomenon. Ed. V. L. Wimbush. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008. 29-40.
  • Kessler, Herbert L. "The Book as Icon." In In the Beginning: Bibles Before the Year 1000. Ed. Michelle P. Brown. Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 2006. 77-103, 222-244.
  • Kinnard, Jacob N. “On Buddhist ‘Bibliolaters’: Representing and Worshiping the Book in Medieval Indian Buddhism.” The Eastern Buddhist 34/2 (2002) 94-116, and plates 1 and 2.
  • Kinnard, Jacob N. “It Is What It Is (Or Is It?): Further Reflections on the Buddhist Representation of Manuscripts,” Postscripts 6 (2019), 101-116 = IB&T, 151-164.
  • Kling, David W. The Bible in History: How the Texts have Shaped the Times. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
  • Kooij, A. van der. "The Canonization of Ancient Books Kept in the Temple of Jerusalem," in Canonization and Decanonization 17-40.
  • Krause-Loner, Shawn. “Be-Witching Scripture: The Book of Shadows as Scripture within Wicca/Neo-Pagan Witchcraft.” Postscripts 2 (2006), 273-92 = IB&T, 239-58.
  • Kugel, James L. The Bible As It Was. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 1997.
  • Kugel, James L. "The Bible in the University," in W. H. Propp et al (eds.), The Hebrew Bible and Its Interpreters (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990), pp. 143-165.
  • Lamb, J.A. "The Place of the Bible in the Liturgy," CHB 1:563-586.
  • Lambert, W. G. "Ancestors, Authors, and Canonicity," Journal of Cuneiform Studies 11 (1951), pp. 1-14.
  • Lang, B. "The 'Writings': A Hellenistic Literary Canon in the Hebrew Bible," in Canonization and Decanonization 41-65.
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